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/****************************************************************
*                                                               *
* Copyright (c) 2019-2021 YottaDB LLC and/or its subsidiaries.  *
* All rights reserved.                                          *
*                                                               *
*       This source code contains the intellectual property     *
*       of its copyright holder(s), and is made available       *
*       under a license.  If you do not know the terms of       *
*       the license, please stop and do not read further.       *
*                                                               *
****************************************************************/

/// This module is a very thin wrapper around the `simple_api`.
///
/// Provides a Rust-interface for YottaDB which hides some of the complexity related to
/// managing error-return buffers and tptokens.
///
/// When adding new functions to `Context` or `KeyContext`, please remember to use the helper
/// functions `tptoken`, `take_buffer` and `recover_buffer`; they not only simplify code, but make it
/// easier to change `ContextInternal` if necessary.
///
/// The iterators could use some cleanup; in particular they have few tests.
///
/// Note that `Context` is separate from `ContextInternal` so that the fields can be grouped together
/// into one `Rc<RefCell>`. The `Rc<RefCell>` is necessary because the *same* context needs to be
/// reused among all keys, so that the tptoken is the same everywhere. Changing it to remove the
/// `RefCell` would prevent using `Rc` (since it needs to borrow `buffer` mutably); removing the `Rc`
/// would prevent it from being used in multiple keys.
#[allow(unused)]
const INTERNAL_DOCS: () = ();

mod call_in;

use std::cell::{Cell, RefCell};
use std::error::Error;
use std::rc::Rc;
use std::str::FromStr;
use std::ops::{AddAssign, Deref, DerefMut};
use std::time::Duration;
use std::fmt;

use crate::craw::YDB_ERR_NODEEND;
use crate::simple_api::{
    self, tp_st, YDBResult, YDBError, DataReturn, DeleteType, Key, TransactionStatus, TpToken,
};

/// Private macros to help make iterators
macro_rules! implement_iterator {
    ($name:ident, $advance:ident, $return_type:ty, $next:expr) => {
        #[allow(missing_docs)]
        pub struct $name<'a> {
            key: &'a mut KeyContext,
        }

        impl<'a> Iterator for $name<'a> {
            type Item = YDBResult<$return_type>;

            fn next(&mut self) -> Option<Self::Item> {
                match self.key.$advance() {
                    Ok(_) => $next(self),
                    Err(YDBError { status: YDB_ERR_NODEEND, .. }) => None,
                    Err(x) => Some(Err(x)),
                }
            }
        }
    };
}

macro_rules! gen_iter_proto {
    ($(#[$meta:meta])*
     $name:ident, $return_type:tt) => {
        $(#[$meta])*
            pub fn $name(&mut self) -> $return_type {
                $return_type {
                    key: self,
                }
            }
    }
}

/// Create a [`KeyContext`] with the given subscripts, provided a context.
///
/// # Examples
///
/// ```
/// use std::error::Error;
/// use yottadb::Context;
///
/// fn main() -> Result<(), Box<Error>> {
///     let mut ctx = Context::new();
///     let mut key = yottadb::make_ckey!(ctx, "^hello", "world");
///     key.data()?;
///
///     Ok(())
/// }
/// ```
#[macro_export]
macro_rules! make_ckey {
    ( $ctx:expr, $var:expr $(,)?) => (
        $ctx.new_key($crate::Key::variable($var))
    );
    ( $ctx:expr, $gbl:expr $(, $x:expr)+ ) => (
        $ctx.new_key(
            $crate::make_key!( $gbl, $($x),+ )
        )
    );
}

/// NOTE: all fields in this struct must use interior mutability or they can't be mutated.
#[derive(Debug)]
struct ContextInternal {
    tptoken: Cell<TpToken>,
    buffer: RefCell<Vec<u8>>,
    #[cfg(test)]
    db_lock: RefCell<Option<crate::test_lock::LockGuard<'static>>>,
}

impl PartialEq for ContextInternal {
    fn eq(&self, other: &Self) -> bool {
        self.tptoken == other.tptoken && self.buffer == other.buffer
    }
}

impl Eq for ContextInternal {}

#[cfg(test)]
impl Context {
    fn write_lock(&self) {
        drop(self.context.db_lock.borrow_mut().take());
        *self.context.db_lock.borrow_mut() = Some(crate::test_lock::LockGuard::write());
    }
}

/// A struct that keeps track of the current transaction and error buffer.
///
/// Since all functions in the YottaDB threaded API take a `tptoken` and `error_buffer`,
/// it can be inconvenient to keep track of them manually, especially since
///
/// > Passing in a different or incorrect tptoken can result in hard-to-debug application behavior, including deadlocks. [1]
///
/// This struct keeps track of them for you
/// so you don't have to clutter your application logic with resource management.
///
/// # See also
/// - [Transaction processing](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#transaction-processing)
/// - [Threads](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/programmingnotes.html#threads)
/// - [Threads and transaction processing](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/programmingnotes.html#threads-and-transaction-processing)
///
/// `Context` is _not_ thread-safe, async-safe, or re-entrant.
///
/// Example:
///
/// ```compile_fail,E0277
/// use yottadb::{Context, TransactionStatus, make_ckey};
///
/// let ctx = Context::new();
/// let mut key1 = make_ckey!(ctx, "key1");
/// let mut key2 = make_ckey!(ctx, "key2");
/// tokio::spawn(async {
///     // error[E0277]: `dyn std::error::Error` cannot be sent between threads safely
///     ctx.tp(|_| Ok(TransactionStatus::Ok), "BATCH", &[])
/// });
/// ```
///
/// [1]: https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/programmingnotes.html#threads-and-transaction-processing
#[derive(Clone, Eq, PartialEq)]
pub struct Context {
    context: Rc<ContextInternal>,
}

impl fmt::Debug for Context {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter<'_>) -> fmt::Result {
        f.debug_struct("Context")
            .field("tptoken", &self.tptoken())
            .field("buffer", &String::from_utf8_lossy(&self.context.buffer.borrow()))
            .finish()
    }
}

impl Default for Context {
    fn default() -> Self {
        Self::new()
    }
}

/// A key which keeps track of the current transaction and error buffer.
///
/// Keys are used to get, set, and delete values in the database.
///
/// # See also
/// - [`Key`]
/// - [Keys, values, nodes, variables, and subscripts](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#keys-values-nodes-variables-and-subscripts)
/// - [Local and Global variables](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#local-and-global-variables)
/// - [Intrinsic special variables](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#intrinsic-special-variables)
#[derive(Debug, Clone, Eq, PartialEq)]
pub struct KeyContext {
    /// `KeyContext` implements `Deref<Target = Key>`
    pub key: Key,
    context: Context,
}

impl Context {
    /// Create a new `Context`
    pub fn new() -> Context {
        Context {
            context: Rc::new(ContextInternal {
                tptoken: Cell::new(TpToken::default()),
                buffer: RefCell::new(Vec::new()),
                #[cfg(test)]
                db_lock: RefCell::new(Some(crate::test_lock::LockGuard::read())),
            }),
        }
    }

    /// Create a `KeyContext` from this `Context`.
    ///
    /// # See also
    /// - [`KeyContext::new()`]
    /// - [`KeyContext::with_key`](KeyContext::with_key())
    /// - [`impl From<(&Context, Key)> for KeyContext`](KeyContext#implementations)
    pub fn new_key<K: Into<Key>>(&self, key: K) -> KeyContext {
        KeyContext::with_key(self, key)
    }

    /// Return the token for the transaction associated with this `Context`.
    ///
    /// This allows calling yottadb functions in the `craw` API that have not yet been wrapped
    /// and require a tptoken from inside a transaction.
    ///
    /// # Example
    /// `tptoken()` can be used to call M FFI from within a transaction:
    /// ```
    /// use std::env;
    /// use std::ffi::CStr;
    /// use yottadb::{ci_t, Context, TransactionStatus, YDB_NOTTP};
    ///
    /// env::set_var("ydb_routines", "examples/m-ffi");
    /// env::set_var("ydb_ci", "examples/m-ffi/calltab.ci");
    /// let ctx = Context::new();
    /// ctx.tp(|ctx| {
    ///     let tptoken = ctx.tptoken();
    ///     assert_ne!(tptoken, YDB_NOTTP);
    ///     let mut routine = CStr::from_bytes_with_nul(b"noop\0").unwrap();
    ///     unsafe { ci_t!(tptoken, Vec::new(), routine)?; }
    ///     Ok(TransactionStatus::Ok)
    /// }, "BATCH", &[]).unwrap();
    /// ```
    ///
    /// # See also
    /// - [`Context::tp`](Context::tp())
    #[inline]
    pub fn tptoken(&self) -> TpToken {
        self.context.tptoken.get()
    }

    /// Start a new transaction, where `f` is the transaction to execute.
    ///
    /// `tp` stands for 'transaction processing'.
    ///
    /// The parameter `trans_id` is the name logged for the transaction.
    ///     If `trans_id` has the special value `"BATCH"`, durability is not enforced by YottaDB.
    ///     See the [C documentation] for details.
    ///
    /// The argument passed to `f` is a [transaction processing token][threads and transactions].
    ///
    /// # Rollbacks and Restarts
    /// Application code can return a [`TransactionStatus`] in order to rollback or restart.
    /// `tp_st` behaves as follows:
    /// - If `f` panics, the transaction is rolled back and the panic resumes afterwards.
    /// - If `f` returns `Ok(TransactionStatus)`,
    ///      the transaction will have the behavior documented under `TransactionStatus` (commit, restart, and rollback, respectively).
    /// - If `f` returns an `Err(YDBError)`, the status from that error will be returned to the YottaDB engine.
    ///      As a result, if the status for the `YDBError` is `YDB_TP_RESTART`, the transaction will be restarted.
    ///      Otherwise, the transaction will be rolled back and the error returned from `tp_st`.
    /// - If `f` returns any other `Err` variant, the transaction will be rolled back and the error returned from `tp_st`.
    ///
    /// `f` must be `FnMut`, not `FnOnce`, since the YottaDB engine may
    /// call `f` many times if necessary to ensure ACID properties.
    /// This may affect your application logic; if you need to know how many
    /// times the callback has been executed, get the [intrinsic variable][intrinsics]
    /// [`$trestart`](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#trestart).
    ///
    /// # Errors
    /// - YDB_ERR_TPTIMEOUT - The transaction took more than [`$zmaxtptime`] seconds to execute,
    ///     where `$zmaxtptime` is an [intrinsic special variable][intrinsics].
    /// - YDB_TP_ROLLBACK — application logic indicates that the transaction should not be committed.
    /// - A `YDBError` returned by a YottaDB function called by `f`.
    /// - Another arbitrary error returned by `f`.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    /// Rollback a transaction if an operation fails:
    /// ```
    /// use yottadb::{Context, KeyContext, TpToken, TransactionStatus};
    ///
    /// # fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn std::error::Error>> {
    /// let ctx = Context::new();
    /// let var = KeyContext::variable(&ctx, "tpRollbackTest");
    /// var.set("initial value")?;
    /// println!("starting tp");
    /// let maybe_err = ctx.tp(|ctx| {
    ///     println!("in tp");
    ///     fallible_operation()?;
    ///     println!("succeeded");
    ///     var.set("new value")?;
    ///     Ok(TransactionStatus::Ok)
    /// }, "BATCH", &[]);
    /// let expected_val: &[_] = if maybe_err.is_ok() {
    ///     b"new value"
    /// } else {
    ///     b"initial value"
    /// };
    /// assert_eq!(var.get()?, expected_val);
    /// # Ok(())
    /// # }
    ///
    /// fn fallible_operation() -> Result<(), &'static str> {
    ///     if rand::random() {
    ///         Ok(())
    ///     } else {
    ///         Err("the operation failed")
    ///     }
    /// }
    /// ```
    ///
    /// Retry a transaction until it succeeds:
    /// ```
    /// use yottadb::{Context, TpToken, TransactionStatus};
    ///
    /// let ctx = Context::new();
    /// ctx.tp(|tptoken| {
    ///     if fallible_operation().is_ok() {
    ///         Ok(TransactionStatus::Ok)
    ///     } else {
    ///         Ok(TransactionStatus::Restart)
    ///     }
    /// }, "BATCH", &[]).unwrap();
    ///
    /// fn fallible_operation() -> Result<(), ()> {
    ///     if rand::random() {
    ///         Ok(())
    ///     } else {
    ///         Err(())
    ///     }
    /// }
    /// ```
    ///
    /// # See Also
    /// - [More details about the underlying FFI call][C documentation]
    /// - [Transaction Processing in YottaDB](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#transaction-processing)
    /// - [Threads and Transaction Processing][threads and transactions]
    ///
    /// [`$zmaxtptime`]: https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#zmaxtptime
    /// [intrinsics]: crate#intrinsic-variables
    /// [threads and transactions]: https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/programmingnotes.html#threads-and-transaction-processing
    /// [C documentation]: https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#ydb-tp-s-ydb-tp-st
    pub fn tp<'a, F>(
        &'a self, mut f: F, trans_id: &str, locals_to_reset: &[&str],
    ) -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error + Send + Sync>>
    where
        // NOTE: `FnMut(&'a Self)` is a distinct type from `FnMut(&Self)`: the first takes a specific
        // lifetime, the second is sugar for `for<'s> FnMut(&'s Self)`. See
        // <https://doc.rust-lang.org/nomicon/hrtb.html> for details. The reason to take `&'a Self` is
        // it imposes fewer requirements on the caller.
        F: FnMut(&'a Self) -> Result<TransactionStatus, Box<dyn Error + Send + Sync>>,
    {
        let initial_token = self.tptoken();
        let result = tp_st(
            initial_token,
            self.take_buffer(),
            |tptoken: TpToken| {
                self.context.tptoken.set(tptoken);
                f(self)
            },
            trans_id,
            locals_to_reset,
        );
        self.context.tptoken.set(initial_token);
        result.map(|x| {
            *self.context.buffer.borrow_mut() = x;
        })
    }

    /// Delete all local variables _except_ for those passed in `saved_variable`.
    ///
    /// Passing an empty `saved_variables` slice deletes all local variables.
    /// Attempting to save a global or intrinsic variable is an error.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    /// - YDB_ERR_NAMECOUNT2HI if `saved_variables.len() > YDB_MAX_NAMES`
    /// - YDB_ERR_INVVARNAME if attempting to save a global or intrinsic variable
    /// - Another system [error return code](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # fn main() -> yottadb::YDBResult<()> {
    /// use yottadb::{Context, KeyContext, TpToken, YDB_ERR_LVUNDEF};
    ///
    /// // Create three variables and set all
    /// let ctx = Context::new();
    /// let a = KeyContext::variable(&ctx, "deleteExclTestA");
    /// a.set("test data")?;
    /// let b = KeyContext::variable(&ctx, "deleteExclTestB");
    /// b.set("test data 2")?;
    /// let c = KeyContext::variable(&ctx, "deleteExclTestC");
    /// c.set("test data 3")?;
    ///
    /// // Delete all variables except `a`
    /// ctx.delete_excl(&[&a.variable])?;
    /// assert_eq!(a.get()?, b"test data");
    /// assert_eq!(b.get().unwrap_err().status, YDB_ERR_LVUNDEF);
    /// assert_eq!(c.get().unwrap_err().status, YDB_ERR_LVUNDEF);
    ///
    /// // Delete `a` too
    /// ctx.delete_excl(&[])?;
    /// assert_eq!(a.get().unwrap_err().status, YDB_ERR_LVUNDEF);
    ///
    /// # Ok(())
    /// # }
    /// ```
    ///
    /// # See also
    /// - The [Simple API documentation](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#ydb-delete-excl-s-ydb-delete-excl-st)
    /// - [Local and global variables](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#local-and-global-variables)
    /// - [Instrinsic special variables](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#intrinsic-special-variables)
    pub fn delete_excl(&self, saved_variables: &[&str]) -> YDBResult<()> {
        use simple_api::delete_excl_st;

        let tptoken = self.tptoken();
        let buffer = self.take_buffer();
        self.recover_buffer(delete_excl_st(tptoken, buffer, saved_variables))
    }

    /// Runs the YottaDB deferred signal handler (if necessary).
    ///
    /// This function must be called if an application has a tight loop inside a transaction which never calls a YDB function.
    ///
    /// # See also
    /// - [Signal Handling](super#signal-handling)
    /// - [`Context::tp`](Context::tp())
    /// - The [C documentation](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#ydb-eintr-handler-ydb-eintr-handler-t)
    pub fn eintr_handler(&self) -> YDBResult<()> {
        use simple_api::eintr_handler_t;

        let tptoken = self.tptoken();
        let buffer = self.take_buffer();
        self.recover_buffer(eintr_handler_t(tptoken, buffer))
    }

    /// Given a binary sequence, serialize it to 'Zwrite format', which is ASCII printable.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    /// - If YDB is in UTF8 mode, will return [`BADCHAR`] on invalid UTF8.
    /// - Another [error code](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// When `ydb_chset=UTF-8` is set, this will preserve UTF-8 characters:
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # fn main() -> Result<(), yottadb::YDBError> {
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    ///
    /// let ctx = Context::new();
    /// let str2zwr = ctx.str2zwr("💖".as_bytes())?;
    /// if std::env::var("ydb_chset").as_deref() == Ok("UTF-8") {
    ///     assert_eq!(str2zwr, "\"💖\"".as_bytes());
    /// } else {
    ///     // Note: The "$C" below cannot be expanded to "$CH" or "$CHAR" as that is the output returned by "str2zwr()" in M mode.
    ///     assert_eq!(str2zwr, b"\"\xf0\"_$C(159,146,150)");
    /// }
    /// # Ok(())
    /// # }
    /// ```
    ///
    /// When the input is invalid UTF-8, it will use the more verbose Zwrite format:
    /// ```
    /// # fn main() -> Result<(), yottadb::YDBError> {
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    ///
    /// let ctx = Context::new();
    /// let input = b"\xff";
    /// assert!(std::str::from_utf8(input).is_err());
    /// assert_eq!(ctx.str2zwr(input)?, b"$ZCH(255)");
    /// # Ok(()) }
    /// ```
    ///
    /// # See also
    /// - [Zwrite format](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/programmingnotes.html#zwrite-formatted)
    /// - [`zwr2str`](Context::zwr2str()), which deserializes a buffer in Zwrite format back to the original binary.
    ///
    /// [`BADCHAR`]: https://docs.yottadb.com/MessageRecovery/errors.html#badchar
    pub fn str2zwr(&self, original: &[u8]) -> YDBResult<Vec<u8>> {
        use simple_api::str2zwr_st;

        let tptoken = self.tptoken();
        str2zwr_st(tptoken, self.take_buffer(), original)
    }

    /// Given a buffer in 'Zwrite format', deserialize it to the original binary buffer.
    ///
    /// `zwr2str_st` writes directly to `out_buf` to avoid returning multiple output buffers.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    /// This function returns an empty array if `serialized` is not in Zwrite format.
    /// It can also return another [error code](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code).
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # use yottadb::YDBError;
    /// # fn main() -> Result<(), YDBError> {
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    ///
    /// let ctx = Context::new();
    /// // Use "$ZCH" (instead of "$C") below as that will work in both M and UTF-8 modes (of "ydb_chset" env var)
    /// // Note: Cannot use "$ZCHAR" below as "$ZCH" is the only input format recognized by "zwr2str()".
    /// let out_buf = ctx.zwr2str(b"\"\xf0\"_$ZCH(159,146,150)")?;
    /// assert_eq!(out_buf.as_slice(), "💖".as_bytes());
    /// # Ok(())
    /// # }
    /// ```
    ///
    /// # See also
    /// - [Zwrite format](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/programmingnotes.html#zwrite-formatted)
    /// - [str2zwr](Context::str2zwr()), the inverse of `zwr2str`.
    pub fn zwr2str(&self, serialized: &[u8]) -> Result<Vec<u8>, YDBError> {
        use simple_api::zwr2str_st;

        let tptoken = self.tptoken();
        zwr2str_st(tptoken, self.take_buffer(), serialized)
    }

    fn take_buffer(&self) -> Vec<u8> {
        std::mem::replace(&mut self.context.buffer.borrow_mut(), Vec::new())
    }

    fn recover_buffer(&self, result: YDBResult<Vec<u8>>) -> YDBResult<()> {
        result.map(|x| {
            *self.context.buffer.borrow_mut() = x;
        })
    }

    /// Acquires locks specified in `locks` and releases all others.
    ///
    /// This operation is atomic. If any lock cannot be acquired, all locks are released.
    /// The `timeout` specifies the maximum time to wait before returning an error.
    /// If no locks are specified, all locks are released.
    ///
    /// Note that YottaDB locks are per-process, not per-thread.
    ///
    /// # Limitations
    ///
    /// For implementation reasons, there is a hard limit to the number of `Key`s that can be passed in `locks`:
    // floor( (36 - 4)/3 ) = 10
    /// - 64-bit: 10 `Key`s
    // floor( (36 - 7)/3 ) = 9
    /// - 32-bit: 9  `Key`s
    ///
    /// If more than this number of keys are passed, `lock_st` will return `YDB_ERR_MAXARGCNT`.
    ///
    /// For implementation reasons, `lock_st` only works on 64-bit platforms, or on 32-bit ARM.
    ///
    /// `lock_st` will not be compiled on 16, 8, or 128 bit platforms
    /// (i.e. will fail with 'cannot find function `lock_st` in module `yottadb::simple_api`').
    ///
    /// On non-ARM 32-bit platforms, the compiler will allow `lock_st` to be called,
    /// but it will have unspecified behavior and has not been tested.
    /// Use [`KeyContext::lock_incr`] and [`KeyContext::lock_decr`] instead.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    ///
    /// Possible errors for this function include:
    /// - `YDB_LOCK_TIMEOUT` if all locks could not be acquired within the timeout period.
    ///   In this case, no locks are acquired.
    /// - `YDB_ERR_TIME2LONG` if `timeout` is greater than `YDB_MAX_TIME_NSEC`
    /// - `YDB_ERR_MAXARGCNT` if too many locks have been passed (see [Limitations](#limitations))
    /// - [error return codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    /// ```
    /// use std::slice;
    /// use std::time::Duration;
    /// use yottadb::{Context, KeyContext, Key, TpToken};
    ///
    /// // You can use either a `Key` or a `KeyContext` to acquire a lock.
    /// // This uses a `KeyContext` to show that you need to use `.key` to get the inner `Key`.
    /// let ctx = Context::new();
    /// let a = KeyContext::variable(&ctx, "lockA");
    ///
    /// // Acquire a new lock
    /// // using `from_ref` here allows us to use `a` later without moving it
    /// ctx.lock(Duration::from_secs(1), slice::from_ref(&a.key)).unwrap();
    ///
    /// // Acquire multiple locks
    /// let locks = vec![a.key, Key::variable("lockB")];
    /// ctx.lock(Duration::from_secs(1), &locks).unwrap();
    ///
    /// // Release all locks
    /// ctx.lock(Duration::from_secs(1), &[]).unwrap();
    /// ```
    ///
    /// # See also
    ///
    /// - The C [Simple API documentation](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#ydb-lock-s-ydb-lock-st)
    /// - [Locks](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#locks)
    ///
    /// [`KeyContext::lock_incr`]: KeyContext::lock_incr()
    /// [`KeyContext::lock_decr`]: KeyContext::lock_decr()
    pub fn lock(&self, timeout: Duration, locks: &[Key]) -> YDBResult<()> {
        use simple_api::lock_st;

        let tptoken = self.tptoken();
        let buffer = self.take_buffer();
        self.recover_buffer(lock_st(tptoken, buffer, timeout, locks))
    }
}

/// Utility functions
impl Context {
    /// Return the message corresponding to a YottaDB error code
    ///
    /// # Errors
    /// - `YDB_ERR_UNKNOWNSYSERR` if `status` is an unrecognized status code
    ///
    /// # See also
    /// - [`impl Display for YDBError`][`impl Display`], which should meet most use cases for `message_t`.
    /// - [Function return codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#function-return-codes)
    /// - [ZMessage codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MessageRecovery/errormsgref.html#zmessage-codes)
    /// - The [C documentation](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#ydb-message-ydb-message-t)
    ///
    /// [`impl Display`]: YDBError#impl-Display
    ///
    /// # Example
    /// Look up the error message for an undefined local variable:
    /// ```
    /// use yottadb::{Context, KeyContext, TpToken, YDB_ERR_LVUNDEF};
    ///
    /// let ctx = Context::new();
    /// let key = KeyContext::variable(&ctx, "oopsNotDefined");
    ///
    /// let err = key.get().unwrap_err();
    /// assert_eq!(err.status, YDB_ERR_LVUNDEF);
    ///
    /// let buf = ctx.message(err.status).unwrap();
    /// let msg = String::from_utf8(buf).unwrap();
    /// assert!(msg.contains("Undefined local variable"));
    /// ```
    pub fn message(&self, status: i32) -> YDBResult<Vec<u8>> {
        let tptoken = self.tptoken();
        simple_api::message_t(tptoken, Vec::new(), status)
    }

    /// Return a string in the format `rustwr <rust wrapper version> <$ZYRELEASE>`
    ///
    /// [`$ZYRELEASE`] is the [intrinsic variable] containing the version of the underlying C database
    /// and `<rust wrapper version>` is the version of `yottadb` published to crates.io.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    /// No errors should occur in normal operation.
    /// However, in case of system failure, an [error code] may be returned.
    ///
    /// [error code]: https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code
    /// [intrinsic variable]: https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#intrinsic-special-variables
    /// [`$ZYRELEASE`]: https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#zyrelease
    ///
    /// # Example
    /// ```
    /// # fn main() -> yottadb::YDBResult<()> {
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    /// let ctx = Context::new();
    /// let release = ctx.release()?;
    /// # Ok(())
    /// # }
    /// ```
    pub fn release(&self) -> YDBResult<String> {
        let tptoken = self.tptoken();
        simple_api::release_t(tptoken, Vec::new())
    }
}

impl std::borrow::Borrow<Key> for KeyContext {
    fn borrow(&self) -> &Key {
        &self.key
    }
}

impl std::borrow::BorrowMut<Key> for KeyContext {
    fn borrow_mut(&mut self) -> &mut Key {
        &mut self.key
    }
}

impl Deref for KeyContext {
    type Target = Key;

    fn deref(&self) -> &Self::Target {
        &self.key
    }
}

impl DerefMut for KeyContext {
    fn deref_mut(&mut self) -> &mut Self::Target {
        &mut self.key
    }
}

impl AddAssign<i32> for KeyContext {
    fn add_assign(&mut self, rhs: i32) {
        self.increment(Some(rhs.to_string().as_bytes())).expect("failed to increment node");
    }
}

impl From<(&Context, Key)> for KeyContext {
    fn from((ctx, key): (&Context, Key)) -> Self {
        KeyContext::with_key(ctx, key)
    }
}

/// The error type returned by [`KeyContext::get_and_parse()`]
#[derive(Debug)]
pub enum ParseError<T> {
    /// There was an error retrieving the value from the database.
    YDB(YDBError),
    /// Retrieving the value succeeded, but it was not a valid `String`.
    ///
    /// The bytes of the value are still available using `.into_bytes()`.
    Utf8(std::string::FromUtf8Error),
    /// A valid `String` was retrieved but did not parse successfully.
    /// The `String` is still available.
    ///
    /// The `T` is the type of `FromStr::Err` for the value being parsed.
    Parse(T, String),
}

impl<T: fmt::Display> fmt::Display for ParseError<T> {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        match self {
            ParseError::YDB(err) => write!(f, "{}", err),
            ParseError::Utf8(utf8) => write!(f, "{}", utf8),
            ParseError::Parse(err, _) => write!(f, "{}", err),
        }
    }
}

impl<T: Error + 'static> Error for ParseError<T> {
    fn source(&self) -> Option<&(dyn Error + 'static)> {
        let err = match self {
            ParseError::YDB(err) => err as &dyn Error,
            ParseError::Utf8(not_utf8) => not_utf8,
            ParseError::Parse(not_valid, _) => not_valid,
        };
        Some(err)
    }
}

impl KeyContext {
    /// Create a new `KeyContext`, creating the `Key` at the same time.
    ///
    /// # See also
    /// - [`KeyContext::with_key`](KeyContext::with_key())
    /// - [`Context::new_key()`]
    /// - [`impl From<(&Context, Key)> for KeyContext`](KeyContext#implementations)
    pub fn new<V, S>(ctx: &Context, variable: V, subscripts: &[S]) -> KeyContext
    where
        V: Into<String>,
        S: Into<Vec<u8>> + Clone,
    {
        Self::with_key(ctx, Key::new(variable, subscripts))
    }
    /// Shortcut for creating a `KeyContext` with no subscripts.
    // this should be kept in sync with `Key::variable`
    pub fn variable<V: Into<String>>(ctx: &Context, var: V) -> Self {
        Self::with_key(ctx, var)
    }
    /// Create a new `KeyContext` using an existing key.
    ///
    /// # See also
    /// - [`KeyContext::new`](KeyContext::new())
    /// - [`Context::new_key()`]
    /// - [`impl From<(&Context, Key)> for KeyContext`](KeyContext#implementations)
    pub fn with_key<K: Into<Key>>(ctx: &Context, key: K) -> Self {
        Self { context: ctx.clone(), key: key.into() }
    }

    fn take_buffer(&self) -> Vec<u8> {
        self.context.take_buffer()
    }

    fn recover_buffer(&self, result: YDBResult<Vec<u8>>) -> YDBResult<()> {
        self.context.recover_buffer(result)
    }

    /// Gets the value of this key from the database and returns the value.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    ///
    /// Possible errors for this function include:
    /// - YDB_ERR_GVUNDEF, YDB_ERR_INVSVN, YDB_ERR_LVUNDEF as appropriate if no such variable or node exists
    /// - [error return codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # #[macro_use] extern crate yottadb;
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    /// use std::error::Error;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> Result<(), Box<Error>> {
    ///     let ctx = Context::new();
    ///     let mut key = make_ckey!(ctx, "^hello");
    ///
    ///     key.set("Hello world!")?;
    ///     let output_buffer = key.get()?;
    ///
    ///     assert_eq!(output_buffer, b"Hello world!");
    ///
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    pub fn get(&self) -> YDBResult<Vec<u8>> {
        let tptoken = self.context.tptoken();
        self.key.get_st(tptoken, Vec::new())
    }

    /// Retrieve a value from the database and parse it into a Rust data structure.
    ///
    /// This is a shorthand for `String::from_utf8(key.get()).parse()`
    /// that collects the errors into a single enum.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    /// Set and retrieve an integer, with error handling.
    /// ```
    /// use yottadb::{Context, ParseError};
    /// let ctx = Context::new();
    /// let mut key = ctx.new_key("weekday");
    /// key.set(5.to_string())?;
    /// let day: u8 = match key.get_and_parse() {
    ///     Ok(day) => day,
    ///     Err(ParseError::YDB(err)) => return Err(err),
    ///     Err(ParseError::Utf8(err)) => {
    ///         eprintln!("warning: had an invalid string");
    ///         String::from_utf8_lossy(&err.as_bytes()).parse().unwrap()
    ///     }
    ///     Err(ParseError::Parse(err, original)) => {
    ///         panic!("{} is not a valid string: {}", original, err);
    ///     }
    /// };
    /// Ok(())
    /// ```
    ///
    /// Set and retrieve an integer, without error handling.
    /// ```
    /// # use yottadb::YDBResult;
    /// # fn main() -> YDBResult<()> {
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    /// let ctx = Context::new();
    /// let mut key = ctx.new_key("weekday");
    /// key.set(5.to_string())?;
    /// let day: u8 = key.get_and_parse().unwrap();
    /// Ok(())
    /// # }
    /// ```
    pub fn get_and_parse<T: FromStr>(&self) -> Result<T, ParseError<T::Err>> {
        self.get()
            .map_err(ParseError::YDB)
            .and_then(|bytes| String::from_utf8(bytes).map_err(ParseError::Utf8))
            .and_then(|s| s.parse().map_err(|err| ParseError::Parse(err, s)))
    }

    /// Sets the value of a key in the database.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    ///
    /// Possible errors for this function include:
    /// - YDB_ERR_INVSVN if no such intrinsic special variable exists
    /// - [error return codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # #[macro_use] extern crate yottadb;
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    /// use std::error::Error;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> Result<(), Box<Error>> {
    ///     let ctx = Context::new();
    ///     let mut key = make_ckey!(ctx, "^hello");
    ///
    ///     key.set("Hello world!")?;
    ///
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    pub fn set<U: AsRef<[u8]>>(&self, new_val: U) -> YDBResult<()> {
        let tptoken = self.context.tptoken();
        let out_buffer = self.take_buffer();
        let result = self.key.set_st(tptoken, out_buffer, new_val);
        self.recover_buffer(result)
    }

    /// Returns the following information in DataReturn about a local or global variable node:
    ///
    /// * NoData: There is neither a value nor a subtree; i.e it is undefined.
    /// * ValueData: There is a value, but no subtree.
    /// * TreeData: There is no value, but there is a subtree.
    /// * ValueTreeData: There are both a value and a subtree.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    ///
    /// Possible errors for this function include:
    /// - [error return codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # #[macro_use] extern crate yottadb;
    /// use yottadb::{Context, DataReturn};
    /// use std::error::Error;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error>> {
    ///     let ctx = Context::new();
    ///     let mut key = make_ckey!(ctx, "^helloDoesNotExist");
    ///
    ///     assert_eq!(key.data()?, DataReturn::NoData);
    ///
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    pub fn data(&self) -> YDBResult<DataReturn> {
        let tptoken = self.context.tptoken();
        let out_buffer = self.take_buffer();
        self.key.data_st(tptoken, out_buffer).map(|(y, x)| {
            *self.context.context.buffer.borrow_mut() = x;
            y
        })
    }

    /// Delete nodes in the local or global variable tree or subtree specified. A value of DelNode or DelTree for DeleteType
    /// specifies whether to delete just the node at the root, leaving the (sub)tree intact, or to delete the node as well as the (sub)tree.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    ///
    /// Possible errors for this function include:
    /// - [error return codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # #[macro_use] extern crate yottadb;
    /// use yottadb::{Context, DataReturn, DeleteType};
    /// use std::error::Error;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error>> {
    ///     let ctx = Context::new();
    ///     let mut key = make_ckey!(ctx, "^helloDeleteMe");
    ///
    ///     key.set("Hello world!")?;
    ///     key.delete(DeleteType::DelTree)?;
    ///
    ///     assert_eq!(key.data()?, DataReturn::NoData);
    ///
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    pub fn delete(&self, delete_type: DeleteType) -> YDBResult<()> {
        let tptoken = self.context.tptoken();
        let out_buffer = self.take_buffer();
        let result = self.key.delete_st(tptoken, out_buffer, delete_type);
        self.recover_buffer(result)
    }

    /// Converts the value to a [number](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/programmingnotes.html#canonical-numbers)
    /// and increments it based on the value specifed by Option.
    ///
    /// `increment` defaults to 1 if the value is None.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    ///
    /// Possible errors for this function include:
    /// - YDB_ERR_NUMOFLOW
    /// - [error return codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # See also
    ///
    /// - [How YDB stores numbers internally](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/programmingnotes.html#numeric-considerations)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # #[macro_use] extern crate yottadb;
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    /// use std::error::Error;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error>> {
    ///     let ctx = Context::new();
    ///     let mut key = make_ckey!(ctx, "helloIncrementMe");
    ///
    ///     key.set("0")?;
    ///     key.increment(None)?;
    ///     let output_buffer = key.get()?;
    ///     assert_eq!(output_buffer, b"1");
    ///
    ///     assert_eq!(key.increment(Some(b"100"))?, b"101");
    ///     let output_buffer = key.get()?;
    ///     assert_eq!(output_buffer, b"101");
    ///
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    ///
    /// As a shorthand, you can use `+=` to increment a key.
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # use yottadb::{Context, KeyContext, DeleteType};
    /// # use std::error::Error;
    /// # fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error>> {
    /// let ctx = Context::new();
    /// let mut key = KeyContext::variable(&ctx, "helloAddAssign");
    /// key += 100;
    /// let output_buffer = key.get()?;
    /// assert_eq!(output_buffer, b"100");
    /// # Ok(()) }
    /// ```
    pub fn increment(&self, increment: Option<&[u8]>) -> YDBResult<Vec<u8>> {
        let tptoken = self.context.tptoken();
        self.key.incr_st(tptoken, Vec::new(), increment)
    }

    /// Increment the count of a lock held by the process, or acquire a new lock.
    ///
    /// If the lock is not currently held by this process, it is acquired.
    /// Otherwise, the lock count is incremented.
    ///
    /// `timeout` specifies a time that the function waits to acquire the requested locks.
    /// If `timeout` is 0, the function makes exactly one attempt to acquire the lock.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    /// - `YDB_ERR_INVVARNAME` if `self.variable` is not a valid variable name.
    /// - `YDB_LOCK_TIMEOUT` if the lock could not be acquired within the specific time.
    /// - `YDB_ERR_TIME2LONG` if `timeout.as_nanos()` exceeds `YDB_MAX_TIME_NSEC`
    ///                    or if `timeout.as_nanos()` does not fit into a `c_ulonglong`.
    /// - Another [error code](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # fn main() -> Result<(), yottadb::YDBError> {
    /// use yottadb::{Context, KeyContext};
    /// use std::time::Duration;
    ///
    /// let ctx = Context::new();
    /// let key = KeyContext::variable(&ctx, "lockIncrTest");
    /// key.lock_incr(Duration::from_secs(1))?;
    /// # Ok(())
    /// # }
    /// ```
    ///
    /// # See also
    /// - The C [Simple API documentation](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#ydb-lock-decr-s-ydb-lock-decr-st)
    /// - [Locks](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#locks)
    /// - [Variables](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#variables-vs-subscripts-vs-values)
    pub fn lock_incr(&self, timeout: std::time::Duration) -> YDBResult<()> {
        let tptoken = self.context.tptoken();
        let buffer = self.take_buffer();
        self.recover_buffer(self.key.lock_incr_st(tptoken, buffer, timeout))
    }

    /// Decrement the count of a lock held by the process.
    ///
    /// When a lock goes from 1 to 0, it is released.
    /// Attempting to decrement a lock not owned by the current process has no effect.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    /// - `YDB_ERR_INVVARNAME` if `self.variable` is not a valid variable name.
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # fn main() -> Result<(), yottadb::YDBError> {
    /// use yottadb::{Context, KeyContext};
    /// use std::time::Duration;
    ///
    /// let ctx = Context::new();
    /// let key = KeyContext::variable(&ctx, "lockDecrTest");
    /// key.lock_incr(Duration::from_secs(1))?;
    /// key.lock_decr()?;
    /// # Ok(())
    /// # }
    /// ```
    ///
    /// # See also
    /// - The C [Simple API documentation](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#ydb-lock-decr-s-ydb-lock-decr-st)
    /// - [Locks](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#locks)
    /// - [Variables](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#variables-vs-subscripts-vs-values)
    pub fn lock_decr(&self) -> YDBResult<()> {
        let tptoken = self.context.tptoken();
        let buffer = self.take_buffer();
        self.recover_buffer(self.key.lock_decr_st(tptoken, buffer))
    }

    /// Implements breadth-first traversal of a tree by searching for the next subscript, and passes itself in as the output parameter.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    ///
    /// Possible errors for this function include:
    /// - YDB_ERR_NODEEND
    /// - [error return codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # #[macro_use] extern crate yottadb;
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    /// use std::error::Error;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> Result<(), Box<Error>> {
    ///     let ctx = Context::new();
    ///     let mut key = make_ckey!(ctx, "^hello", "a");
    ///
    ///     key.set("Hello world!")?;
    ///     key[0] = Vec::from("b");
    ///     key.set("Hello world!")?;
    ///     key[0] = Vec::from("a");
    ///     // Starting at a, the next sub should be b
    ///     key.next_sub_self()?;
    ///
    ///     assert_eq!(key[0], b"b");
    ///
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    pub fn next_sub_self(&mut self) -> YDBResult<()> {
        let tptoken = self.context.tptoken();
        let out_buffer = self.take_buffer();
        let result = self.key.sub_next_self_st(tptoken, out_buffer);
        self.recover_buffer(result)
    }

    /// Implements reverse breadth-first traversal of a tree by searching for the previous subscript, and passes itself in as the output parameter.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    ///
    /// Possible errors for this function include:
    /// - YDB_ERR_NODEEND
    /// - [error return codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # #[macro_use] extern crate yottadb;
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    /// use std::error::Error;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> Result<(), Box<Error>> {
    ///     let ctx = Context::new();
    ///     let mut key = make_ckey!(ctx, "^hello", "0");
    ///
    ///     key.set("Hello world!")?;
    ///     key[0] = Vec::from("1");
    ///     key.set("Hello world!")?;
    ///     key[0] = Vec::from("1");
    ///     key.prev_sub_self()?;
    ///
    ///     assert_eq!(key[0], b"0");
    ///
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    pub fn prev_sub_self(&mut self) -> YDBResult<()> {
        let tptoken = self.context.tptoken();
        let out_buffer = self.take_buffer();
        let result = self.key.sub_prev_self_st(tptoken, out_buffer);
        self.recover_buffer(result)
    }

    /// Implements breadth-first traversal of a tree by searching for the next subscript.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    ///
    /// Possible errors for this function include:
    /// - YDB_ERR_NODEEND
    /// - [error return codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # #[macro_use] extern crate yottadb;
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    /// use std::error::Error;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error>> {
    ///     let ctx = Context::new();
    ///     let mut key = make_ckey!(ctx, "^hello", "0");
    ///
    ///     key.set("Hello world!")?;
    ///     key[0] = Vec::from("1");
    ///     key.set("Hello world!")?;
    ///     key[0] = Vec::from("0");
    ///     let subscript = key.next_sub()?;
    ///
    ///     assert_eq!(subscript, b"1");
    ///
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    pub fn next_sub(&self) -> YDBResult<Vec<u8>> {
        let tptoken = self.context.tptoken();
        let out_buffer = self.take_buffer();
        self.key.sub_next_st(tptoken, out_buffer)
    }

    /// Implements reverse breadth-first traversal of a tree by searching for the previous subscript.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    ///
    /// Possible errors for this function include:
    /// - YDB_ERR_NODEEND
    /// - [error return codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # #[macro_use] extern crate yottadb;
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    /// use std::error::Error;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error>> {
    ///     let ctx = Context::new();
    ///     let mut key = make_ckey!(ctx, "^hello", "0");
    ///
    ///     key.set(b"Hello world!")?;
    ///     key[0] = Vec::from("1");
    ///     key.set("Hello world!")?;
    ///     key[0] = Vec::from("1");
    ///     let subscript = key.prev_sub()?;
    ///
    ///     assert_eq!(subscript, b"0");
    ///
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    pub fn prev_sub(&self) -> YDBResult<Vec<u8>> {
        let tptoken = self.context.tptoken();
        let out_buffer = self.take_buffer();
        self.key.sub_prev_st(tptoken, out_buffer)
    }

    /// Facilitates depth-first traversal of a local or global variable tree, and passes itself in as the output parameter.
    ///
    /// For more information on variable trees, see the [overview of YottaDB][how-it-works]
    /// as well as the section on [variables and nodes][vars-nodes].
    ///
    /// # Errors
    ///
    /// Possible errors for this function include:
    /// - YDB_ERR_NODEEND
    /// - [error return codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # #[macro_use] extern crate yottadb;
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    /// use std::error::Error;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> Result<(), Box<Error>> {
    ///     let ctx = Context::new();
    ///     let mut key = make_ckey!(ctx, "^hello", "0", "0");
    ///
    ///     key.set("Hello world!")?;
    ///     // Forget the second subscript
    ///     key.truncate(1);
    ///     key.next_node_self()?;
    ///
    ///     assert_eq!(key[1], b"0");
    ///
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    ///
    /// [how-it-works]: https://yottadb.com/product/how-it-works/
    /// [vars-nodes]: https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/MultiLangProgGuide.html#keys-values-nodes-variables-and-subscripts
    pub fn next_node_self(&mut self) -> YDBResult<()> {
        let tptoken = self.context.tptoken();
        let out_buffer = self.take_buffer();
        let result = self.key.node_next_self_st(tptoken, out_buffer);
        self.recover_buffer(result)
    }

    /// Facilitates reverse depth-first traversal of a local or global variable tree and reports the predecessor node, passing itself in as the output parameter.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    ///
    /// Possible errors for this function include:
    /// - YDB_ERR_NODEEND
    /// - [error return codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # #[macro_use] extern crate yottadb;
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    /// use std::error::Error;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> Result<(), Box<Error>> {
    ///     let ctx = Context::new();
    ///     let mut key = make_ckey!(ctx, "^hello", "0", "0");
    ///
    ///     key.set("Hello world!")?;
    ///     // Forget the second subscript
    ///     key.truncate(1);
    ///     // Go to the next node, then walk backward
    ///     key[0] = Vec::from("1");
    ///     key.prev_node_self()?;
    ///
    ///     assert_eq!(key[1], b"0");
    ///
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    pub fn prev_node_self(&mut self) -> YDBResult<()> {
        let tptoken = self.context.tptoken();
        let out_buffer = self.take_buffer();
        let result = self.key.node_prev_self_st(tptoken, out_buffer);
        self.recover_buffer(result)
    }

    /// Facilitate depth-first traversal of a local or global variable tree.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    ///
    /// Possible errors for this function include:
    /// - YDB_ERR_NODEEND
    /// - [error return codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # #[macro_use] extern crate yottadb;
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    /// use std::error::Error;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error>> {
    ///     let ctx = Context::new();
    ///     let mut key = make_ckey!(ctx, "^hello", "0", "0");
    ///
    ///     key.set("Hello world!")?;
    ///     // Forget the second subscript
    ///     key.truncate(1);
    ///     let k2 = key.next_node()?;
    ///
    ///     assert_eq!(k2[1], b"0");
    ///
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    pub fn next_node(&mut self) -> YDBResult<KeyContext> {
        let mut ret = self.clone();
        ret.next_node_self()?;
        Ok(ret)
    }

    /// Facilitates reverse depth-first traversal of a local or global variable tree, and returns
    /// the previous node.
    ///
    /// # Errors
    ///
    /// Possible errors for this function include:
    /// - YDB_ERR_NODEEND
    /// - [error return codes](https://docs.yottadb.com/MultiLangProgGuide/cprogram.html#error-return-code)
    ///
    /// # Examples
    ///
    /// ```
    /// # #[macro_use] extern crate yottadb;
    /// use yottadb::Context;
    /// use std::error::Error;
    ///
    /// fn main() -> Result<(), Box<dyn Error>> {
    ///     let ctx = Context::new();
    ///     let mut key = make_ckey!(ctx, "^helloPrevNode", "0", "0");
    ///
    ///     key.set("Hello world!")?;
    ///     // Forget the second subscript
    ///     key.truncate(1);
    ///     // Go to the next node, then walk backward
    ///     key[0] = "1".into();
    ///     let k2 = key.prev_node()?;
    ///
    ///     assert_eq!(&k2.variable, "^helloPrevNode");
    ///     assert_eq!(k2[0], b"0");
    ///     assert_eq!(k2[1], b"0");
    ///
    ///     Ok(())
    /// }
    /// ```
    pub fn prev_node(&mut self) -> YDBResult<KeyContext> {
        let mut ret = self.clone();
        ret.prev_node_self()?;
        Ok(ret)
    }

    gen_iter_proto!(
        /// Iterates over all the values at this level of the database tree and returns the value for
        /// each node.
        iter_values,
        ForwardValueIterator
    );

    gen_iter_proto!(
        /// Iterates over all the subscripts at this level of the database tree and returns the
        /// subscript for each node.
        iter_subs,
        ForwardSubIterator
    );

    gen_iter_proto!(
        /// Iterates over all the subscripts at this level of the database tree and returns the subscript and value for each node.
        iter_subs_values,
        ForwardSubValueIterator
    );

    gen_iter_proto!(
        /// Iterates over all subscripts at this level of the database tree and returns a copy of the key at each subscript.
        iter_key_subs,
        ForwardKeySubIterator
    );

    gen_iter_proto!(
        /// Iterates over all nodes for the global pointed to by the key and returns the value at each node.
        iter_nodes,
        ForwardNodeIterator
    );

    gen_iter_proto!(
        /// Iterates over all nodes for the global pointed to by the key and returns a copy of the key at each node.
        iter_key_nodes,
        ForwardKeyNodeIterator
    );

    gen_iter_proto!(
        /// Iterates in reverse order over all the values at this level of the database tree and returns the value for
        /// each node.
        iter_values_reverse,
        ReverseValueIterator
    );

    gen_iter_proto!(
        /// Iterates in reverse order over all the subscripts at this level of the database tree and returns the
        /// subscript for each node.
        iter_subs_reverse,
        ReverseSubIterator
    );

    gen_iter_proto!(
        /// Iterates in reverse order over all the subscripts at this level of the database tree and returns the subscript and value for each node.
        iter_subs_values_reverse,
        ReverseSubValueIterator
    );

    gen_iter_proto!(
        /// Iterates in reverse order over all subscripts at this level of the database tree and returns a copy of the key at each subscript.
        iter_key_subs_reverse,
        ReverseKeySubIterator
    );

    gen_iter_proto!(
        /// Iterates in reverse order over all nodes for the global pointed to by the key and returns the value at each node.
        iter_nodes_reverse,
        ReverseNodeIterator
    );

    gen_iter_proto!(
        /// Iterates in reverse oder over all nodes for the global pointed to by the key and returns a copy of the key at each node.
        iter_key_nodes_reverse,
        ReverseKeyNodeIterator
    );
}

implement_iterator!(
    ForwardValueIterator,
    next_sub_self,
    Vec<u8>,
    |me: &mut ForwardValueIterator| { Some(me.key.get()) }
);

implement_iterator!(ForwardSubIterator, next_sub_self, Vec<u8>, |me: &mut ForwardSubIterator| {
    Some(Ok(me.key.last().unwrap().clone()))
});

implement_iterator!(
    ForwardSubValueIterator,
    next_sub_self,
    (Vec<u8>, Vec<u8>),
    |me: &mut ForwardSubValueIterator| {
        let val = me.key.get();
        if val.is_err() {
            let err = val.err().unwrap();
            return Some(Err(err));
        }
        Some(Ok((me.key.last().unwrap().clone(), val.unwrap())))
    }
);

implement_iterator!(
    ForwardKeySubIterator,
    next_sub_self,
    KeyContext,
    |me: &mut ForwardKeySubIterator| { Some(Ok(me.key.clone())) }
);

implement_iterator!(
    ForwardNodeIterator,
    next_node_self,
    Vec<u8>,
    |me: &mut ForwardNodeIterator| {
        let data = me.key.data().unwrap();
        if data != DataReturn::ValueData && data != DataReturn::ValueTreeData {
            return me.next();
        }
        Some(me.key.get())
    }
);

implement_iterator!(
    ForwardKeyNodeIterator,
    next_node_self,
    KeyContext,
    |me: &mut ForwardKeyNodeIterator| { Some(Ok(me.key.clone())) }
);

implement_iterator!(
    ReverseValueIterator,
    prev_sub_self,
    Vec<u8>,
    |me: &mut ReverseValueIterator| { Some(me.key.get()) }
);

implement_iterator!(ReverseSubIterator, prev_sub_self, Vec<u8>, |me: &mut ReverseSubIterator| {
    Some(Ok(me.key.last().unwrap().clone()))
});

implement_iterator!(
    ReverseSubValueIterator,
    prev_sub_self,
    (Vec<u8>, Vec<u8>),
    |me: &mut ReverseSubValueIterator| {
        let val = me.key.get();
        if val.is_err() {
            let err = val.err().unwrap();
            return Some(Err(err));
        }
        Some(Ok((me.key.last().unwrap().clone(), val.unwrap())))
    }
);

implement_iterator!(
    ReverseKeySubIterator,
    prev_sub_self,
    KeyContext,
    |me: &mut ReverseKeySubIterator| { Some(Ok(me.key.clone())) }
);

implement_iterator!(
    ReverseNodeIterator,
    prev_node_self,
    Vec<u8>,
    |me: &mut ReverseNodeIterator| { Some(me.key.get()) }
);

implement_iterator!(
    ReverseKeyNodeIterator,
    prev_node_self,
    KeyContext,
    |me: &mut ReverseKeyNodeIterator| { Some(Ok(me.key.clone())) }
);

#[cfg(test)]
mod tests;